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The University of Texas
Marine Science Institute
750 Channel View Drive
Port Aransas, TX 78373
Phone: 361-749-6711

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Gardner, Wayne

Wayne S Gardner

Professor Emeritus
Department of Marine Science

Not accepting graduate students. Nutrient/Energy Transformations in Coastal Ecosystems

Postal Address
AUSTIN, TX 78701

Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, Madison (1971)
M.S., University of Wisconsin, Madison (1964)
B.S., University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point (1963)

Research Interests

Water Chemistry/Ecosystem Dynamics
Nitrogen dynamics in water column and sediments, nutrient-organism interactions in coastal ecosystems, relationships between nitrogen inputs and oxygen removal in coastal environments such as the “Dead Zone,” Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) as a mechanism to retain available N in coastal regions.

Nitrogen cycling is important in coastal and estuarine ecosystems because nitrogen is transformed to a variety of forms, by autotrophic and heterotrophic processes in the water and sediments, and is a nutrient that often limits the growth of phytoplankton and other plants in these relatively shallow systems. Internal regeneration is an important process providing nitrogen to plants whereas denitrification causes available nitrogen to be lost from estuarine and coastal ecosystems.

Major goals are to understand and quantify the biotic mechanisms and rates of nitrogen remineralization and the fate of nitrogen compounds in the water and at the sediment-water interface. This information is needed to understand nitrogen biogeochemistry and to quantify the relative importance of internal nitrogen regeneration processes compared to inputs from other sources in these productive ecosystems. Nitrogen regeneration and transformation rates in the water and at the sediment-water interface are measured with 15-N as an isotopic tracer. Ammonium concentrations and isotope ratios are measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Denitrification rates are determined using a Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometer. Nitrogen cycling studies have been conducted in Texas coastal ecosystems, Florida Bay, the Mississippi River Dead Zone, The Great Lakes, Lake Taihu, China, and other shallow coastal environments and wetlands.


Smyth, A.R., S.P. Thompson, K.N. Siporin, W.S. Gardner, M.J. McCarthy, M.F. Piehler. 2012.   assessing nitrogen dynamics throughout the estuarine landscape. Estuaries and Coasts. DOI 10.1007/s12237-012-9554-3.

Hou, L. M. Lou, S.A. Carini, W. S. Gardner. 2012. Transformation and fate of nitrate near the sediment–water interface of Copano Bay. Continental Shelf Research 35 (2012) 86–94.

Souza, A.C., T.K. Pease, and W.S. Gardner. 2012. Vertical profiles of major organic geochemical constituents and extracellular enzymatic activities in sandy sediments of Aransas and Copano bays, TX. Estuaries and Coasts: 35, 308-323.

Souza, A.C., T.K. Pease. and W.S. Gardner. 2011. The direct role of enzyme hydrolysis on ammonium regeneration rates in estuarine sediments. Aquatic Microbial Ecology. 65: 159–168.

James, T.J., W.S. Gardner, M.J. McCarthy, and S.A. Carini. 2011. Nitrogen dynamics in Lake Okeechobee: forms, functions, and changes. Hydrobiologia 669:199–212.

Paerl, H.W., HaiXu, M.J. McCarthy, G. Zhu, B. Qin, Y. Li, and W.S. Gardner. 2011 Controlling harmful cyanobacterial blooms in a hyper-eutrophic lake (Lake Taihu, China): The need for a dual nutrient (N & P) management strategy. Water Research. 45:1973-1983.

Lin, Xiao, M.J. McCarthy, S.A. Carini, and W.S. Gardner. 2011. Net, actual, and potential sediment-water interface NH4+ fluxes in the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOMEX): Evidence for NH4+ limitation of microbial dynamics. Continental Shelf Research. 31:120-128.

Carini, S.A., M.J. McCarthy, and W.S. Gardner. 2010. An isotope dilution method to measure nitrification rates in the northern Gulf of Mexico and other eutrophic waters. Continental Shelf Research 30:1795-1801.

McCarthy, M.J., W.S. Gardner, P.J. Lavrentyev, F.J. Jochem, and C.J. Williams. 2009. Water column nitrogen cycling and microbial plankton in Florida Bay. Contributions in Marine Science 38:49-62.

Gardner, W.S., M.J. McCarthy, S.A Carini, A. Souza, L. Hou, K.S. McNeal, M.K. Puckett, and J. Pennington. 2009. Collection of intact sediment cores with overlying water to study nitrogen- and oxygen-dynamics in regions with seasonal hypoxia. Continental Shelf Research 29: 2207-2213.

McCarthy, M.J., T. James, Y. Chen, T. L. East,W S. Gardner. 2009. Nutrient ratios and phytoplankton community structure in the large, shallow, eutrophic, subtropical Lakes Okeechobee (Florida, USA) and Taihu (China), Limnology.

Gardner, W.S. and M.J. McCarthy. 2009. Nitrogen dynamics at the sediment–water interface in shallow, sub-tropical Florida Bay: why denitrification efficiency may decrease with increased eutrophication. Biogeochemistry 95:185-198 .

Fennel, K., Brady, D., DiToro, D., Fulweiler, R., Gardner, W.S., Giblin, A., McCarthy, M.J., Rao, A., Seitzinger, S., Thouvenot-Korppoo, M., Tobias, C. 2008. Modelling denitrification in aquatic sediments - Biogeochemistry, 93: 159-178.

McCarthy, M.J., K.S. McNeal, J.W. Morse, & W.S. Gardner. 2008. Bottom-water hypoxia effects on sediment-water interface nitrogen transformations in a seasonally hypoxic, shallow bay (Corpus Christi Bay, Texas, USA). Estuaries and Coasts 31(3): 521-531.

Scott, J.T., M.J. McCarthy, W.S. Gardner, and R.D. Doyle. 2008. Denitrification, dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, and nitrogen fixation along a nitrate concentration gradient in a created freshwater wetland. Biogeochemistry 87:99-111.

Rao, A. M. F., M.J. McCarthy, W.S. Gardner, and R. A. Jahnke. 2008. Respiration and Denitrification in Permeable Continental Shelf Deposits on the South Atlantic Bight: N2:Ar and Isotope Pairing Measurements in Sediment Column Experiments. Continental Shelf Research 28:602-613.

Dagg, M.J, J.W. Ammerman, R.M.W. Amon, W.S. Gardner, R.E. Green, and S.E. Lohrenz. 2007. Water column processes influencing hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico: A synthesis. Estuaries and Coasts 30:735-752.

Rao, A.M.F., M.J. McCarthy, W.S. Gardner, and R.A. Jahnke. 2007. Respiration and denitrification in permeable continental shelf deposits on the South Atlantic Bight: Rates of carbon and nitrogen cycling from sediment column experiments. Continental Shelf Research 27:1801-1819.

McCarthy, M.J., W.S. Gardner, P.J Lavrentyev, K.M. Moats, F.J. Jochem, and D.M. Klarer. 2007. Effects of hydrological flow regime on sediment-water interface and water column nitrogen dynamics in a Great Lakes coastal wetland (Old Woman Creek, Lake Erie), Journal of Great Lakes Research 33:219-231.

McCarthy, M.J., P.L. Lavrentyev, L. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Chen, B. Qin, and W.S. Gardner. 2007. Nitrogen dynamics relative to microbial food web structure in a subtropical, shallow, well-mixed, eutrophic lake (Taihu Lake, China). Hydrobiologia (Special issue on Lake Taihu) 581:195-207.

Townsend-Small, A., M.J. McCarthy, J.A. Brandes, L.Y. Yang, L. Zhang, and W.S. Gardner. 2007. Seasonal stable isotopic composition of nitrate in Taihu Lake and major inflow rivers. Hydrobiologia (Special issue on Lake Taihu) 581:135-140.

Gardner, W.S., M.J McCarthy, S. An, D. Sobolev, K.S. Sell, and D. Brock. 2006. Nitrogen fixation and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) support nitrogen dynamics in Texas estuaries. Limnology and Oceanography (Special issue on Eutrophication) 51:558-568.

Lavrentyev, P.J., M.J. McCarthy, D.M. Klarer, F.J. Jochem, and W.S. Gardner. 2004. Microbial food web and nitrogen dynamics in a storm-driven LAKE ERIE wetland. Microbial Ecology. 48:567-577.

Jochem, F.J., M.J. McCarthy, and W.S. Gardner. 2004. Microbial ammonium cycling in the Mississippi River plume during the drought spring of 2000. Journal of Plankton Research 1265-1275.

Gardner, W.S., P.J. Lavrentyev, J.F. Cavaletto, M.J. McCarthy, B.J. Eadie, T.H. Johengen, and J.B. Cotner. 2004. The distribution and dynamics of nitrogen and microbial plankton in southern Lake Michigan during spring transition 1999-2000. Journal of Geophysical Research 109 (C03007):1-16.

Bernot, M.J., W.K. Dodds, W.S. Gardner, M.J. McCarthy, D. Sobolev, and J.L. Tank. 2003.

Comparing denitrification estimates using acetylene inhibition and membrane inlet mass spectrometry in a Texas estuary. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:5950-5956.

McCarthy, M.J. and W.S. Gardner. 2003. An application of membrane inlet mass spectrometry to measure denitrification in a recirculating mariculture system. Aquaculture 218:341-355.

Chen, C., R. Ji, D.J. Schwab, D. Beletsky, G.F. Fahnenstiel, M. Jiang, T.H. Johengen, H. Vanderploeg, B. Eadie, J.W. Budd, M.H. Bundy, W. Gardner, J. Cotner, and P.J. Lavrentyev. 2002. A model study of the coupled biological and physical dynamics in Lake Michigan. Ecological Modeling 152:145-168.

Ji, R., C. Chen, J.W. Budd, D.J. Schwab, D. Beletsky, G.L. Fahnenstiel, T.H. Johengen, H. Vanderploeg, B. Eadie, J. Cotner, W. Gardner, and M. Bundy. 2002. Influences of suspended sediments on the ecosystem in Lake Michigan: a 3-D coupled bio-physical modeling experiment. Ecological Modeling 152:169-190.

An, S. and W.S. Gardner. 2002. Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) as a nitrogen link, versus denitrification as a sink in a shallow estuary (Laguna Madre/Baffin Bay, Texas). Marine Ecology Progress Series 237:41-50.

An, S., W.S. Gardner, and T. Kana. 2001. Simultaneous measurement of denitrification and nitrogen fixation using isotope pairing with membrane inlet mass spectrometry analysis. Applied Environmental Microbiology 67:1171-1178.

Gardner, W.S., L. Yang, J.B. Cotner, T.H. Johengen, and P.J. Lavrentyev. 2001. Nitrogen dynamics in sandy freshwater sediments (Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron). Journal of Great Lakes Research 27:84-97.

Cotner, J.B., R.H. Sada, H. Bootsma, T. Johengen, J.F. Cavaletto, and W.S. Gardner. 2000. Nutrient limitation of heterotrophic bacteria in Florida Bay. Estuaries 23:611-620.

Lavrentyev, P.J., W.S. Gardner, and L. Yang. 2000. Effects of the zebra mussel on nitrogen dynamics and the microbial community at the sediment water interface. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 21:187-194.

Gardner, W.S., P.J. Lavrentyev, H.A. Bootsma, J.F. Cavaletto, F. Troncone, and J.B. Cotner. 2000. Effects of natural light on nitrogen dynamics in diverse aquatic environments. Proceedings International Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology 27:64-73.

Gardner, W.S., J.F. Cavaletto, H.A. Bootsma, P.J. Lavrentyev, and F. Troncone. 1998. Nitrogen cycling rates and light effects in tropical Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. Limnology and Oceanography 43(8):1814-1825.

Lavrentyev, P.J., Bootsma, H.A., T.H. Johengen, J.F. Cavaletto, and W.S. Gardner. 1998. Microbial plankton response to resource limitation: insights from the community structure and seston stoichiometry in Florida Bay, USA. Marine Ecology Progress Series 165:45-57.

Vanderploeg, H.A., J.F. Cavaletto, J.R. Liebig, and W.S. Gardner. 1998. Limnocalanus macrurus (Copepoda; Calanoida) retains a marine arctic lipid and life cycle strategy in Lake Michigan. Journal of Plankton Research 20:1581-1597.

Lavrentyev, P.J., W.S. Gardner, and J.R. Johnson. 1997. Cascading trophic effects on aquatic nitrification: experimental evidence and potential implications. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 13:161-175.

Tomaszek, J.A., W.S. Gardner, and T.H. Johengen. 1997. Denitrification in sediments of a Lake Erie coastal wetland (Old Woman Creek, Huron, Ohio, USA). Journal of Great Lakes Research 23(4):403-415.

Gardner, W.S., J.F. Cavaletto, J.B. Cotner, and J.R. Johnson. 1997. Effects of natural light on nitrogen cycling rates in the Mississippi River plume. Limnology and Oceanography 42(2):273-281.

Cavaletto, J.F., T.F. Nalepa, R. Dermott, W.S. Gardner, M.A. Quigley, and G.A. Lang. 1996. Seasonal variation of lipid composition, weight, and length, in juvenile Diporeia spp. (Amphipoda) from Lakes Michigan and Ontario. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences53:2044-2051.

Gardner, W.S., R. Benner, R.M.W. Amon, J.B. Cotner, J.F. Cavaletto, and J.R. Johnson. 1996. Effects of high molecular weight dissolved organic matter and light on heterotrophic nitrogen dynamics in the Mississippi River plume. Marine Ecology Progress Series 133:287-297.

Gardner, W.S., P.A. St. John, C. Evans, and J. Cavaletto. 1996. HPLC retention-time-shift determination of nitrogen isotope ratios in enriched water. American Laboratory (Distinguished Authors’ Issue) 28:17C-17H.

Cotner, J.B., Jr., W.S. Gardner, J.R. Johnson, R.H. Sada, J.F. Cavaletto, and R.T. Heath. 1995. Effects of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) on bacterioplankton: Evidence for both size-selective consumption and growth stimulation. Journal of Great Lakes Research 21:517-528.

Gardner, W.S., J.F. Cavaletto, T.H. Johengen, J.R. Johnson, R.T. Heath, and J.B. Cotner, Jr. 1995. Effects of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, on community nitrogen dynamics in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron. Journal of Great Lakes Research 21:529-544.

Heath, R.T., G.L. Fahnenstiel, W.S. Gardner, J.F. Cavaletto, and Soon-Jin Hwang. 1995. Ecosystem-level effects of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha): An Enclosure Experiment in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron. Journal of Great Lakes Research 21:501-516.

Lavrentyev, P.L., W.S. Gardner, J.F. Cavaletto, and J.R. Beaver. 1995. Effects of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha Pallas) on planktonic protozoa and phytoplankton in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron. Journal of Great Lakes Research 21:545-557.

Gardner, W.S., H.A. Bootsma, C. Evans, and P.A. St. John. 1995. Improved chromatographic analysis of 15N:14N ratios in ammonium or nitrate for isotope addition experiments. Marine Chemistry 48:271-282.

Gardner, W.S., R. Benner, G. Chin-Leo, J.B. Cotner, Jr., B.J. Eadie, J.F. Cavaletto, and M.B. Lansing. 1994. Mineralization of organic material and bacterial dynamics in Mississippi River plume water. Estuaries 17:816-828. .

Cotner, J.B., Jr. and W.S. Gardner. 1993. Heterotrophic bacterial mediation of ammonium and dissolved free amino acid fluxes in the Mississippi River plume. Marine Ecology Progress Series 93:75-87.

Fitzgerald, S.A. and W.S. Gardner. 1993. An algal carbon budget for pelagic/benthic coupling. Limnology and Oceanography 38:547-560.

Gardner, W.S., J.B. Cotner, Jr., and L.R. Herche. 1993. Chromatographic measurement of nitrogen mineralization rates in marine coastal waters with 15N. Marine Ecology Progress Series 93:65-73.

Gardner, W.S., E. Escobar Briones, E. Cruz Kaegi, and G. Rowe. 1993. Benthic invertebrate excretion and sediment-water nitrogen flux in the Gulf of Mexico near the Mississippi River outflow. Estuaries 16:799-808.

Lansing, M.B., W.S. Gardner, and B.J. Eadie. 1993. Catecholamines as potential sub-lethal stress indicators in Great Lakes macrobenthic invertebrates. Journal of Great Lakes Research 19:569-581.

Smith, R.E.H., J.F. Cavaletto, B.J. Eadie, and W.S. Gardner. 1993. Growth and lipid composition of high arctic ice algae during the spring bloom at Resolute, Northwest-Territories, Canada. Marine Ecology Progress Series 97:19-29.

Deibel, D., J.F. Cavaletto, M. Riehl, and W.S. Gardner. 1992. Lipid and lipid class content of the pelagic tunicate Oikopleura vanhoeffeni. Marine Ecology Progress Series 88:297-302.

Parrish, C.C., B.J. Eadie, W.S. Gardner, and J.F. Chandler. 1992. Lipid class and alkane distribution of settling particles in the upper Laurentian Great Lakes. Organic Geochemistry 18:33-40.

Vanderploeg, H.A., S.J. Bolsenga, G.L. Fahnenstiel, J.R. Liebig, and W.S. Gardner. 1992. Plankton ecology in an ice-covered bay of Lake Michigan: Utilization of a winter phytoplankton bloom by reproducing copepods. Hydrobiologia 243/244:175-184.

Vanderploeg, H.A., W.S. Gardner, C.C. Parrish, J.R. Liebig, and J.F. Cavaletto. 1992. Lipids and life-cycle strategy of a hypolimnetic copepod in Lake Michigan. Limnology and Oceanography 37:413-424.

Gardner, W.S., L.R. Herche, P.A. St. John, and S.P. Seitzinger. 1991. High performance liquid chromatographic determination of 15NH4:[15NH4 + 14NH4] ion ratios in seawater for isotope dilution experiments. Analytical Chemistry 63:1838-1843.

Gardner, W.S., S.P. Seitzinger, and J.M. Malczyk. 1991. The effects of sea salts on the forms of nitrogen released from estuarine and freshwater sediments: Does ion pairing affect ammonium flux? Estuaries 14:157-166.

Gardner, W.S. and P.A. St. John. 1991. High-performance liquid chromatographic method to determine ammonium ion and primary amines in seawater. Analytical Chemistry 63:537-540.

Nalepa, T.F., W.S. Gardner, and J.M. Malczyk. 1991. Phosphorus cycling by mussels (Unionidae: Bivalvia) in Lake St. Clair. Hydrobiologia 219:239-250.

Seitzinger, A.P., W.S. Gardner, and A.K. Spratt. 1991. The effect of salinity on ammonium sorption in aquatic sediments: Implications for benthic nutrient recycling. Estuaries 14:167-174.

Gardner, W.S., P.F. Landrum, and J.F. Cavaletto. 1990. Lipid-partitioning and disposition of benzo[a]pyrene and hexachlorobiphenyl in Lake Michigan Pontoporeia hoyi and Mysis relicta. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 9:1269-1278..

Cavaletto, J.F., H.A. Vanderploeg, and W.S. Gardner. 1989. Wax esters in the freshwater zooplankter Limnocalamus macrurus. Limnology and Oceanography 34:785-789.

Gardner, W.S., J.F. Chandler, and G.A. Laird. 1989. Organic-nitrogen mineralization and substrate limitation of bacteria in Lake Michigan. Limnology and Oceanography 34:478-485.

Gardner, W.S., B.J. Eadie, J.F. Chandler, C.C. Parrish, and J.M. Malczyk. 1989. Mass Flux and nutritional composition of settling epilimnetic particles in Lake Michigan. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 46:1118-1124.

Gauvin, J.M., W.S. Gardner, and M.A. Quigley. 1989. Effects of food-removal on nutrient release rates, lipid content, and survival time of Lake Michigan Pontoporeia hoyi. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 46:1125-1130.

Quigley, M.A., J.F. Cavaletto, and W.S. Gardner. 1989. Lipid composition related to size and composition of the amphipod Pontoporeia hoyi. Journal of Great Lakes Research 15:601-610.

Schelske, C.L., J.A. Robbins, W.S. Gardner, D.J. Conley, and R. Bourbonniere. 1988. Sediment record of biogeochemical responses to anthropogenic perturbations of nutrient cycles in Lake Ontario. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 45:1291-1303.

Gardner, W.S., J. Chandler, G.A., Laird, and H.J. Carrick. 1987. Sources and fate of dissolved free amino acids in epilimnetic Lake Michigan water. Limnology and Oceanography 32:1353-1362.

Gardner, W.S., T.F. Nalepa, and J.M. Malczyk. 1987. Nitrogen mineralization and denitrification in Lake Michigan sediments. Limnology and Oceanography 32:1226-1238.

Manny, B.A., G.L. Fahnenstiel, and W.S. Gardner. 1987. Stimulation of Lake Michigan phytoplankton growth by acid rain. Journal of Great Lakes Research 13:218-223.

Gardner, W.S., J.F. Chandler, G.A. Laird, and D. Scavia. 1986. Microbial response to amino acid additions in Lake Michigan: Grazer control vs. substrate limitation of bacterial populations? Journal of Great Lakes Research 12:161-174.

Vanderploeg, H.A., G.A. Laird, J.R. Leibig, and W.S. Gardner. 1986. Ammonium release by zooplankton in suspensions of heat-killed algae and an evaluation of the flow-cell method. Journal of Plankton Research 8:341-352.

Gardner, W.S., W.A. Frez, E.A. Cichocki, and C.C. Parrish. 1985. Micromethod for lipids in aquatic invertebrates. Limnology and Oceanography 30:1099-1105.

Gardner, W.S., T.F. Nalepa, W.A. Frez, E.A. Cichocki, and P.F. Landrum. 1985. Seasonal patterns in lipid content of Lake Michigan macroinvertebrates. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 42:1827-1832.

Eadie, B.J., R.L. Chambers, W.S. Gardner, and G.L. Bell. 1984. Sediment trap studies in Lake Michigan: Resuspension and chemical fluxes in the southern basin. Journal of Great Lakes Research 10:307-321 (Chandler-Misener Award paper).

Landrum, P.F., S.R. Nihart, B.J. Eadie, and W.S. Gardner. 1984. Reverse-phase separation method for determining pollutant binding to Aldrich humic acid and dissolved organic carbon in natural waters. Environmental Science Technology 18:187-192.

Paffenhöfer, G.A. and W.S. Gardner. 1984. Ammonium release by juveniles and adult females of the subtropical marine copepod Eucalamus pileatus. Journal of Plankton Research 6:505-513.

Gardner, W.S. and J.M. Malczyk. 1983. Discrete injection segmented flow analysis to measure nutrients in small volume water samples. Analytical Chemistry 55:1645-1647.

Gardner, W.S., T.F. Nalepa, D.R. Slavens, and G.A. Laird. 1983. Patterns and rates of nitrogen release by benthic chironomidae and oligochaetes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 40:259-256.

Nalepa, T.F., W.S. Gardner, and J.M. Malczyk. 1983. Benthic invertebrates and sediment phosphorus flux in the Great Lakes. Coastal Oceanography and Climatology News 5:33-34.

Nalepa, T.F., W.S. Gardner, and J.M. Malczyk. 1983. Phosphorus release by three kinds of benthic invertebrates: Effects of substrate and water medium. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 40:810-813.

Eadie, B.J., W. Faust, W.S. Gardner, and T. Nalepa. 1982. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments and associated benthos in Lake Erie. Chemosphere 11:185-191.

Gardner, W.S., P.F. Landrum, and D.A. Yates. 1982. Fractionation of metal forms in natural waters by size exclusion chromatography with inductively coupled argon plasma detection. Analytical Chemistry 54:1196-1198.

Gardner, W.S. and G.A. Paffenhöfer. 1982. Nitrogen regeneration by the subtropical copepod Eucalanus pileatus. Journal of Plankton Research 4:725-734.

Gardner, W.S. and H.A. Vanderploeg. 1982. Micro sample-filtering device for liquid chromatography or flow-injection analysis. Analytical Chemistry 54: 2129-2930.

Scavia, D. and W.S. Gardner. 1982. Kinetics of nitrogen and phosphorus release by Daphnia magna. Hydrobiologia 96:105-111.

Gardner, W.S., W.H. Miller, III, and M.J. Imlay. 1981. Free amino acids in mantle tissue of the bivalve Amblema plicata: Possible relation to environmental stress. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 26:157-162.

Gardner, W.S. and W.H. Miller, III. 1981. Intracellular composition and net release rates of free amino acids in Daphnia magna. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 38:157-162.

Gardner, W.S., T.F. Nalepa, M.A. Quigley, and J.M. Malczyk. 1981. Release of phosphorus by certain benthic invertebrates. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 38:978-981.

Gardner, W.S. and D. Scavia. 1981. Kinetic examination of nitrogen release by zooplankters. Limnology and Oceanography 26:801-810.

Gardner, W.S., B.J. Eadie, and W.H. Miller, III. 1980. Microtechnique to remove particles from high performance liquid chromatographic samples. Journal of Liquid Chromatography 3:1585-1592.

Gardner, W.S. and W.H. Miller. 1980. Reverse-phase liquid chromatographic analysis of amino acids after reaction with o-phthaladehyde. Analytical Biochemistry 101:61-65.

Claus, C., F. Benijts, G. Vanderputte, and W. Gardner. 1979. The biochemical composition of the larvae of two strains of Artemia salina (L.) reared on two different algal foods. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 36:171-183.

Gardner, W.S., R.F. Lee, K.R. Tenore, and L.W. Smith. 1979. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coastal sediments: Importance of microbes and polychaete worms. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 11:339-347.

Gardner, W.S. and R.B. Hanson. 1979. Dissolved free amino acids in interstitial waters of Georgia salt marsh soils. Estuaries 2:113-118.

Gardner, W.S. 1978. Microfluoremetric method to measure ammonium in natural waters. Limnology and Oceanography 23:1069-1072.

Gardner, W.S. and J.A. Stephens. 1978. Stability and composition of terrestrially derived dissolved organic nitrogen in continental shelf waters. Marine Chemistry 6:335-342.

Hanson, R.B. and W.S. Gardner. 1978. Uptake and metabolism of two amino acids by anaerobic microorganisms in four diverse salt marsh soils. Marine Biology 46:101-107.

Gardner, W.S., D.R. Kendall, R.R. Odum, H.L. Windom, and J.A. Stephens. 1978. The distribution of methylmercury in a contaminated salt marsh ecosystem. Environmental Pollution 15:243-251.

Gardner, W.S. 1978. Sensitive fluorometric procedure to determine individual amino acids in marine waters. Marine Chemistry 6:15-26.

Lee, R.F., W.S. Gardner, J.W. Anderson, J.W. Blaylock, and J. Barwell-Clarke. 1978. Fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in controlled ecosystem enclosures. Environmental Science and Technology 12:832-838.

Gardner, W.S., D.S. Wynne, and W.M. Dunstan. 1976. Simplified procedure for the manual analysis of nitrate in sea water. Marine Chemistry 4:393-396.

Windom, H.L., W.S. Gardner, J.A. Stephens, and F.E. Taylor. 1976. The role of methylmercury production in the transfer of mercury in salt marsh ecosystems. Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science 4:579-583.

Gardner, W.S. and G.F. Lee. 1975. The role of amino acids in the nitrogen cycle of Lake Mendota. Limnology and Oceanography 20:379-388.

Gardner, W.S. and D.W. Menzel. 1974. Phenolic aldehydes as indicators of terrestrially derived organic matter in the sea. Geochemica et Cosmochimica Acta 38:813-822.

Gardner, W.S. and G.F. Lee. 1973. Gas chromatographic procedure to analyze amino acids in lake waters. Environmental Science Technology 7:719-723.

Schafer, M.L., J.T. Peeler, J.E. Campbell, and W.S. Gardner. 1969. Pesticides in drinking waters from the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers. Environmental Science Technology 3:1261-1269.

Gardner, W.S. and J.E. Campbell. 1967. Composite water sampling device. Journal of American Water Works Association 59:1187-1189.

Gardner, W.S. and G.F. Lee. 1965. Oxygenation of lake sediments. International Journal of Air and Water Pollution 9:553-564.


Burgin, A.J., S. K. Hamilton, W.S. Gardner, and M.J. McCarthy. 2012. Nitrate Reduction, Denitrification and Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction to Ammonium in Wetland Sediments. In: Methods in Biogeochemistry of Wetlands. Soil Science Society of America Book Series (In Press).

Cavaletto, J.F. and W.S. Gardner. 1998. Seasonal dynamics of lipids in freshwater benthic invertebrates. In: Lipids in Freshwater Ecosystems. M. Arts and B. Wainman (eds.), pp. 109-131. Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., New York.

Gardner, W.S., M.A. Quigley, G.L. Fahnenstiel, D. Scavia, and W.A. Frez. 1990. Pontoporeia hoyi -- A direct trophic link between spring diatoms and fish in Lake Michigan. In: Large Lakes Ecological Structure and Function. M.M. Tilzer and C. Serruya (eds.). Springer-Verlag, NY.

Gardner, W.S. and P.F. Landrum. 1983. Characterization of ambient levels of ultraviolet-absorbing dissolved organic materials in natural waters by aqueous liquid chromatography. In: Aquatic and Terrestrial Humic Materials. R.F. Christman and E.T. Gjessing, (eds.), pp. 203-217. Ann Arbor Science Publishers.

Eadie, B.J., W.R. Faust, P.F. Landrum, W.S. Gardner, and T. Nalepa. 1983. Bioconcentration of PAH by some benthic organisms. In: Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons VII. M.W. Cooke and A.J. Dennis (eds.), pp. 437-449. Batelle Press, Columbus, Ohio.

Gardner, W.S. 1980. Salt Marsh Creation: Impact of heavy metals. In: Rehabilitation and Creation of Selected Coastal Habitats: Proceedings of a Workshop. J.C. Lewis and E.W. Bunce (eds.). Office of Biological Services, Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Dept. of Interior, Washington, DC.

Lee, R.F., S.C. Singer, K.R. Tenore, W.S. Gardner, and R.M. Philpot. 1979. Detoxification system in polychaete worms: Importance in the degradation of sediment hydrocarbons. In: Marine Pollution Functional Responses. W.B. Vernberg, F.P. Thurberg, A. Calabrese, and J. Vernberg (eds.), pp. 23-37. Academic Press.

Windom, H.L., W.M. Dunstan, and W.S. Gardner. 1975. River input of inorganic phosphorus and nitrogen to the southeastern salt marsh estuarine environment. In: Mineral Cycling in southeastern Ecosystems: Proc. of A.E.C. Sympos. May 1-3, 1974.

Windom, H.L., W.S. Gardner, W.M. Dunstan, and G.A. Paffenhöfer. 1976. Cadmium and mercury in a coastal marine ecosystem. In: Marine Pollutant Transfer. H.L. Windom and R.A. Duce (eds.). Lexington Books, Toronto.

Gardner, W.S., H.L. Windom, J.A. Stephens, F.E. Taylor, and R.R. Stickney. 1975. Concentrations of total mercury and methylmercury in fish and other organisms: Implications to mercury cycling. In: Mineral Cycling in southeastern Ecosystems: Proc. of A.E.C. Sympos. May 1-3, 1974.

  • Outstanding performance ratings at GLERL in 1993, 1994 and 1995
  • Five outstanding merit pay performance ratings at GLERL while Head of the
  • Ecosystem and Nutrient Dynamics Group
  • Elected Fellow, American Institute of Chemists, 1987
  • Co-recipient of Chandler-Misener Award for the best paper published in the Journal
  • of Great Lakes Research during 1984
  • Letters of invitation from Editor of Journal of Liquid Chromatography to publish
  • research results in that journal
  • National Science Foundation Research Grants at Skidaway Institute of
  • Oceanography, 1970's
  • Federal Water Pollution Control Administration Research Fellowship, 1967-1971
  • Commission in U.S. Public Health Service, 1964
  • Public Health Service Traineeship, 1963-1964
  • High School Valedictorian, Granton High School, Wisconsin, 1959


MNS 307, Introduction to Oceanography, Department of Marine Science, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, Spring 2006, Fall 2006, Spring 2008, Fall 2008, Fall 2009, Fall 2010 (Co-taught with D-H. Min)


MNS 482C, Marine Biogeochemistry, Department of Marine Science, The University of Texas at Austin, Port Aransas, Texas, Spring 2010, Spring 2011, Spring 2012 (Co-taught with Z. Liu)

MNS 383, Coastal Processes, Department of Marine Science, The University of Texas at Austin, Port Aransas, Texas, Fall 2007 (Co-taught with D-H. Min)


Graduate Students

Supervisor (for degree completion)   
Afonso C. Souza, Ph.D., 2009
Amy Townsend-Small, Ph.D., 2006

Research Advisor

Mark J. McCarthy, Ph.D. Proposal Committee (Université du Québec à Montréal) 2007-2009

Mark J. McCarthy, M.S. (Texas A&M, Corpus Christi), 2001

Joann F. Cavaletto (Informal advisor), M.S. (Eastern Michigan University), 1989

Margaret B. Lansing, M.S. (Eastern Michigan University), 1991

Jeff M. Gauvin, M.S. (Eastern Michigan University), 1987

Postdoctoral Fellows/Visiting Scientists/ International Students

2011-2012       Dai Ruihua. Visiting Faculty Member, Fudan University, Shanghai, P.R. China

2010-2012       Denise Bruesewitz, EPA-sponsored (grant to E. Buskey) Postdoctoral Fellow           

2010-2011       Lin Xiao, Visiting Ph.D. Student, East China Normal University, Shanghai, P.R. China

2008-2009      Hou Lijun, Ph.D., Postdoctoral Visiting Scientist, State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, East China Normal University, Shanghai, P.R. China

2006-2009      Steve Carini, NSF-sponsored Postdoctoral Fellow at UTMSI

2006-2007       Chuanhai Wang, Ph.D. Student from Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Science, Nanjing, Jiangsu, P.R. China

2004-2005       Zhang Lu, Ph.D. Student, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Science, Nanjing, P.R. China

2001-2003       Dmitri Sobolev, Nancy Lee and Perry R. Bass Postdoctoral Fellow at UTMSI

2000                Tan Yehui, Visiting Ph.D. Student, South China Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China

2000                Brian Eadie, Visiting Scientist, NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory

1999-2000       Soonmo An, Postdoctoral Fellow at UTMSI

1999-2000       Frank Jochem, Nancy Lee and Perry R. Bass Postdoctoral Fellow at UTMSI

1997-1998       Peter Lavrentyev, Nancy Lee and Perry R. Bass Postdoctoral Fellow at UTMSI

1995                Yang Longyuan, Visiting Scientist, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Science, Nanjing, Jiangsu, P.R. China

1994-1996       Peter A. Lavrentyev, Postdoctoral Fulbright Scholar and Cooperative Institute for Limnology and Ecology Research (CILER) Fellow

1993-1995       Harvey A. Bootsma, Postdoctoral National Research Council (NRC) and CILER Fellow

1993-1994       Janusz Tomaszek, Foundation Fellow, Rzeszow University of Technology, Rzeszow, Poland. Kosciuzszko

1991-1992       Robert T. Heath, Academic Sabbatical Scholar, Kent State University

1990-1992       James B. Cotner, Postdoctoral CILER Fellow

1990-1991       Sharon A. Fitzgerald, Postdoctoral NRC Fellow

1987    Christopher Parrish, Postdoctoral Scientist,   Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia